Clarify all your doubts about PVC in our FAQ section.
What is PVC?
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl chloride or with the corresponding abbreviation PVC, is the polymer of vinyl chloride. It is the most important polymer in the series obtained from vinyl monomers and is one of the most consumed plastic materials in the world.
Pure, it is a rigid material; it owes its versatility of application to the possibility of being mixed also in high proportions with inorganic and plasticizing compounds, such as phthalic acid esters, which make it flexible and moldable. It is considered stable and safe in technological applications at room temperature, but extremely dangerous if burned or heated to high temperatures and in plants unsuitable for its treatment due to the presence of chlorine in the molecule, which can be released as HCl, as dioxin, or as vinyl chloride monomer.
Polyvinyl chloride was observed by chance on two occasions during the 19th century, first in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault and then in 1872 by Eugen Baumann. In both cases, a solid white mass of polymer was found inside vinyl chloride bottles left exposed to sunlight.
In the early 20th century, attempts by Russian Ivan Ostromislensky and German Fritz Klatte of Griesheim-Elektron to commercially exploit the product were frustrated by the difficulty of processing the material, which was too rigid and fragile.
In 1926, Waldo Semon of B.F. Goodrich developed a technique for making PVC workable by mixing it with plasticizer additives. The resulting product, more flexible and easier to process, soon reached widespread use.
The first copolymers based on polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl acetate were produced by American Union Carbide in 1927; six years later, in Germany, IG Farben patented the emulsion polymerization techniques.
In Italy, one of the main PVC producers was Montedison, which had its polymers and monomers production facilities in the Porto Marghera petrochemical complex, Venice. The first company to start the industrial production of PVC in Italy was instead S. A. Ursus Gomma in Vigevano (PV) which built, in 1939, a new plant specifically for the processing of the new material. Until the 90s, Brescia was an important center for the production of PVC.
Cleaning of PVC fabrics
1. Do not use solvents or alkaline cleaners which could damage the fabrics.
Avoid chemical detergents, aggressive solvents, rigid brushes and high pressure water, so as not to deteriorate the “first” “thin” surface often made up of materials such as pvdf and fep, with functions, among others, of “self-cleaning”.
2. Remove the “surface” dirt by washing with water, use non-aggressive detergent products according to the indications of the supplier / manufacturer, employing soft brushes, sponges and / or electronic cleaners.
Rinse thoroughly until all detergent or soap residues are completely eliminated.
Remove the most persistent dirt with the use of more concentrated cleaning detergents, it is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions and/or to carry out sample tests on small areas.
Remember to NEVER scratch/scrape the surface finish, then rinse the clean surface with water until you have removed any residue of the detergent used.
3. Dry completely with a dry cloth. Do not overheat the surface and do not dry with hot air, to avoid changes in the color of the fabric.
Carefully read the instructions provided by the detergent manufacturer.
4. Teloni Tosetto is able to supply the most suitable cleaning product for your needs, complete with technical data sheet and safety data sheet.
Warning: when the fabric is wet it becomes very slippery, it is important that workers use all the necessary precautions and all safety systems.
The Municipal Advertising Tax is a tax, in favor of the Municipalities, which weighs on the dissemination of advertising messages. Advertising messages are considered all messages disseminated through signs, taxable pursuant to art. 10 paragraph 1, lett. C of law 28/12/2001, n. 448, signs, plates, banners or any other means other than that subject to public billposting law.
Taxation occurs if messages are displayed in public places or open to the public or if they are perceivable from such places.
The Municipal Advertising Tax must be paid primarily by the person (taxable person) who disposes in any capacity of the means by which the advertising message is disseminated. The person who produces or sells the goods or provides the services subject to advertising is strictly bound to pay the tax.
The calculation of the tax is determined on the basis of the surface of the minimal geometric flat figure in which the advertising medium is circumscribed regardless of the number of messages contained therein.
Surfaces smaller than one square meter are rounded up to one square meter and their fractions, beyond the first one, to half a square meter; there is no tax application for areas less than 300 square centimeters.
Before starting the advertisement, the taxable person is required to present to the Municipality or to the company to which the municipality delegates the collection of the tax, a specific declaration, also cumulative, in which the characteristics, the duration of the advertisement and the location of the advertising media used must be indicated.
The declaration must also be submitted in the case of changes in advertising which entail the modification of the exposed surface or the type of advertising carried out with consequent new taxation; the Municipality is obliged to adjust the amount due following the new declaration and the amount paid for the same period.
The annual advertising declaration also takes effect for subsequent years, provided that there are no changes in the items declared that involve a different amount of tax due; such advertising is considered extended with the payment of the related tax made by January 31 of the reference year, provided that resolution complaint is submitted within the same term.
If the presentation of the declaration is omitted, it is presumed that the advertising referred to in Legislative Decree 507 has been carried out in any case with effect from 1 January in which it was ascertained; in other cases, the presumption operates from the first day of the month in which the assessment was made.
For the failure, late or unfaithful submission of the declaration, in addition to the payment of the tax or the right due, a surcharge is applied (from 100% to 200% with a minimum of € 51.00) as determined by the local authority (pursuant to Legislative Decree 471/472/473 of 18.12.1997 on the subject).
The surcharge for the omitted or unfaithful declaration is reduced to a quarter if the payment is made no later than 60 days from the date of notification of the Notice of Assessment.
For the omitted or late payment of the tax or of the individual installments of it or of the right, a surcharge equal to 30% of the tax or the right whose payment has been omitted or delayed is due, regardless of that referred to in the previous paragraph.
ADVERTISING TAX ON OWN VEHICLES
Art. 13 of Legislative Decree 507 of 11/15/1993
For advertising carried out on own account on vehicles owned by the company or used transportation on its behalf, the tax is payable per calendar year to the municipality in which the company or any other dependency of the company is located, or to the municipality in which its representatives or agents are domiciled, who on the date of January 1st of each year, or that following registration, are equipped with these vehicles, according to the following tariff:
1. for vehicles with a capacity greater than 3000 kg € 74.40
2. for vehicles with a capacity of less than 3000 kg € 49.60
3. for motor vehicles and vehicles not included in the two previous categories € 24.70
For vehicles circulating with a trailer, the tariff referred to in this paragraph is doubled.
For the vehicles referred to in paragraph 3, the tax is not due for the indication of the brand, company name and address of the company, provided that it is affixed no more than twice and each inscription does not have a surface greater than half a square meter.
The tax is also not due for the indication, on the vehicles used for transport, of the company and of the address of the company carrying out the transport activity, also for third parties, limited to the only useful area occupied by these indications (5/d).
ADVERTISING TAX ON THIRD PARTY VEHICLES
The tariff is calculated on the basis of the surface of the minimal geometric flat figure in which the advertising medium is circumscribed regardless of the number of messages contained therein and the value per square meter depends on the municipality where the company carrying the advertising message is located.